Rather than doing so, however, he had the attic stripped of the marble pilasters and other decorations that had inspired so much Renaissance debate. On the career of Apollodorus see MacDonald 1965, pp. Perhaps, as Nesselrath proposes, Raphael was responding to impediments at the site, such as the medieval high altar that was refashioned in the 1490s. 628–645; Wilson Jones 2000, pp. The Tholos was an underground domed tomb used since Neolithic times. 52 Tod A. Marder, “Alexander VII, Bernini and the Urban Setting of the Pantheon in Seventeenth Century,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 50,1991, pp. The original Roman Pantheon, which succumbed to fire in A.D. 80, was constructed in 27 - 25 B.C. 10 William C. Loerke, “Georges Chedanne and the Pantheon: A Beaux Arts Contribution to the History of Roman Architecture,” Modulus 1982, pp. Nevertheless, Raphael’s tomb established a conspicuous precedent for Renaissance artists that was much emulated. 13 Licht 1968, pp. As was common in Roman centralized buildings, the circular geometry of the plan is articulated by two main orthogonal axes and two diagonal axes so as to create eight sectors like slices of a pie (see Plate V). For the Pantheon, Specchi also produced an unexecuted project circa 1710 to remodel the Chapel of St. Joseph of the Holy Land (San Giuseppe di Terra Santa), which is the second chapel at the left on entering (see Fig 11.4). 57 Pasquali 2004 pp. 13–26; and more generally, Tod A. Marder, “Das Pantheon,” in Rom: Meisterwerke der Baukunst von der Antike bis heute, Festgabe für Elisabeth Kieven, ed. 230–231. (Uffizi A 164 recto), 1.17 a and b. The second Master Plan of Rome of 1883 dropped the idea of extending the piazza but maintained the desire, eventually fulfilled, to expose all of the ancient parts of the south side of the monument. 25–35; Giovanni Eroli, Raccolta generale delle iscrizioni pagane e cristiane esistite ed esistenti nel Pantheon di Roma, Narni, 1895, pp. 273–291, and Chapter Ten in this volume. There is, of course, no antique precedent for Posi’s composition, and critics were quick to react. Following the Pantheon’s conversion into a Christian church, it eventually became the burial place for Renaissance figures including painter Raphael, composer Arcangelo Corelli and architect Baldassare Peruzzi. The impetus for this act of official vandalism was the need for metal to cast cannon for the protection of Castel Sant’Angelo, but the negative response was apparently so overwhelming that the pope subsequently claimed to need the materials for Bernini’s Baldacchino in St. Peter’s. 71 Published as Luca Beltrami, Il Pantheon; la struttura organica della cupola e del sottostante tamburo, le fondazioni della rotonda, dell’ avancorpo, e del portico, avanzi degli edifici anteriori alle costruzioni adrianee. When he later drew the Pantheon, Bernini never included the towers, which were finally taken down only in 1892 in the effort to restore the facade to its original, ancient aspect. (Photo archive, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.). Investigations associated with conservation works have also been able to determine that the aggregate materials used in the concrete of the rotunda and dome are graded into at least six different strata, from the travertine-laden concrete at floor level to a mixture using light volcanic scoria (like pumice but denser) at the top toward the oculus (Fig. Teams and Technical Agility 6 Paul Godfrey and David Hemsoll, “The Pantheon: Temple or Rotunda?” in Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire, ed. by emperor Marcus Agrippa, and according to Roman mythology the Pantheon stands on the spot where Romulus was carried away by an eagle after he died. 10.2). Between 1809 and 1813, orders were issued “in the name of Napoleon” to remove the new accretion of stalls and booths “which detract the admiration of visitors from a part of the most beautiful monument of antiquity.”65 The famous neoclassical architects Raffaele Stern (1774–1820) and Giuseppe Valadier (1762–1839) were commissioned to identify, evaluate, and demolish houses attached to the flanks of the Pantheon and to fix the space in front of it as a “piazza rettangolare.” The fishmongers were to be transferred to a new location near Sant’Eustachio. The Pantheon is one of the best-preserved monuments of ancient Rome. As Rome declined and the city shrank from the boundaries of its ancient walls after the fourth century AD, the decay and collapse of buildings, the repeated flooding of the Tiber, and the demise of drainage systems produced an inexorable rise of the ground level. For example, the pavement of the rotunda was restored in 1872 and many times thereafter, right up to the 1990s as mentioned earlier. 39 John Capgrave, Ye solace of pilgrimes: una guida de Roma per i pellegrini del Quattrocento, trans. For some unexplained reason (possibly a disaster such as a shipwreck), the columns originally intended were lost, and construction proceeded with the smaller-size columns we see today, a change that could help to explain the various anomalies of the portico as executed.15, Analysis of the design of the portico and its geometry and proportions is rendered more complex by this theory, but either way, it is possible to observe the harmonious numerical simplicity of proportions that is an enduring hallmark of monumental Roman architecture. 65 Attilio LaPadula, Roma e la regione nell’epoca napoleonica, Rome 1969, pp. 1.14).40 Like the date of the brick walls, that of these passages is uncertain and may be much earlier than the thirteenth-century bell tower. Furthermore, if a square is inscribed in the circular plan of the rotunda and is then replicated (or “flipped”) to the north (Fig. Ironically, as Allan Ceen has argued, such isolation was not desired by the ancient architects, nor in all probability anticipated. The honeycombing of the rotunda’s walls extends into the zone of the springing, where the vault begins to curve inward, and up to the stepped rings at the base of the dome on the exterior. If Baldani and Posi had anticipated future praise for their resolution of a historic feature of the Pantheon, they were sadly mistaken. 62 All citations are from Pasquali 1996a, and included in Tod A. Marder, “Symmetry and Eurythmy at the Pantheon: The Fate of Bernini’s Perceptions from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day,” in Antiquity and Its Interpreters, ed. (Conception Mark Wilson Jones, realization Robert Grover), One of the most intellectually compelling aspects of the Pantheon is the simple proportional scheme that underlies its form. 354–357. 1.15). However, the Asklepieion at Pergamon, a religious structure, does repeat the basic form of the Pantheon. No one knows the original purpose of the present-day Pantheon, but Hadrian sometimes held court there. Pantheon has been at the forefront of ESG for some time ENGAGEMENT WITH THE UNPRI The UNPRI Principles Underpin Our Strategy PRINCIPLE Incorporating ESG issues into our investment analysis and data provider for ESG decision-making process. 10. 1.19. 41 Antonio Muñoz, “La decorazione medioevale del Pantheon,” Nuovo bullettino di archeologia cristiana 18, 1912, pp. Like the Coliseum, the Pantheon was an innovation for the Roman architects. (Wilson Jones 2000, Fig. 1.2).7, 1.2. 21–24; Adriano La Regina, ed., L’arte dell’assedio di Apollodoro di Damasco, Rome 1999; F. Festa Farina, G. Calcani, C. Meucci, and M. Conforto, eds., Tra Damasco e Roma: l’architettura di Apollodoro nella cultura classica, Rome 2001. 1.1). It was the first Roman pagan temple to be consecrated as a Christian church. For a time, Mussolini or his advisors must have hoped to capitalize on the imperial associations of the Pantheon for their own purposes, as the House of Savoy had done. n. 1. 10.1). 93–110; Rice, “Pope Urban VIII and the Pantheon Portico,” in Grasshoff, Heinzelmann, and Wäfler 2009, pp. 44 Tilmann Buddensieg, “Criticism and Praise of the Pantheon in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance,” in Classical Influences on European Culture A.D. 500–1500: Proceedings of an International Conference Held at Kings College, Cambridge, April 1969, ed. The Architectural History of the Pantheon from Agrippa to Septimius Severus via Hadrian, 163–186. 132–160. (Louvre inv. He replaced the bronze trusses with the structure of timber rafters, collars, purlins, struts, and braces apparently implemented by Francesco Borromini, whose working drawings are preserved in the Albertina Museum in Vienna. Our thanks to Carla Trovini for this reference. The new scheme remains in the building for all visitors to see: a remarkably dull combination of rectangular fields and pedimented window frames (see Plate VIII). Unknowns and apparent contradictions will continue to puzzle, enchant, and defy definition or full comprehension. Here, the alternating panels framed by ornamental moldings and pediments over window-like recesses can be firmly dated to 1753, when the ancient composition was heavily altered. 1.24). This vision was, rather, an invention of the Renaissance and the seventeenth century, which was nurtured to fruition in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.69, The twin campanili built on the facade by Maderno and Borromini were removed in 1882–1883 (Figs. Georg Satzinger and Sebastian Schütze, Munich, 2008, pp. Instead, the definitive design for the well-known monument to Victor Emmanuel was selected for the more conspicuous site on Piazza Venezia in 1882 (see Fig. The Treasury of Atreuswas constructed around 1250 BC. Under Paul III (1534–1549) in 1545, it became the prerogative of the Pantheon-based Confraternity of St. Joseph of the Holy Land, whose members were composed exclusively of artists, to grant the privilege of burial in the Pantheon. The Pantheon’s design has influenced countless buildings throughout history, across Europe and throughout the Americas. The surrounding “pergola” must have been an integral part of the altar complex because it was restored by Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492), who moved it toward the center of the building in order to facilitate access to the relics of the martyrs interred under the altar. 316–347. Some of the stuccoes were installed, as we know from reports of their removal under the following pontificate, while some bits apparently survived until Pannini’s day (see Chapter Eleven). None of the statues has survived, nor do we have later notice of them. 95–98. 61 Susanna Pasquali, Il Pantheon: architettura e antiquaria nel Settecento a Roma, Modena 1996. 5, 1999, pp. These arrangements of 1491 were complemented by a fifteenth-century maiolica relief of the Assumption of the Virgin, which hung within a painted gloria of saints in the half dome of the apse.41. At some unspecified moment in the medieval era, the columns on the east side of the portico were lost or severely damaged. In Lolli Ghetti’s estimation, roughly two-thirds of the floor is either modern or ancient material that has been relaid in modern times. Thus, in the ensuing years it became the final resting place of Perino del Vaga (1547), Taddeo Zuccaro (1566), Giacomo Vignola (1573), and others. The only ancient assembly of bronze that does survive at the Pantheon is the grandiose portal made of two opening leaves slung on vertical pivot hinges framed by fluted pilasters at the sides, with an open grille overhead.19 All of this fits within the 20-by-40-foot opening in the masonry, while the threshold is one of the largest single pieces of stone in the whole edifice, a slab of highly prized blood-and-black africano, 20 feet long, 5 feet wide, and of unknown depth. Daniela Giosuè, Rome, 1995. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The conversion played a key role in the Pantheon’s survival, as the papacy had the resources to repair and maintain it. Róma. Other proposals, like the inscription dedicated to the pope that was to be installed around the oculus in a field of stars, remained unexecuted (see Fig. Plan of Agrippa’s Pantheon facing south, orientation now in question. 79–84; Broucke 2009, p. 28. Vittorio Franchetti Pardo, Milan 2003, pp. There were precedents such as the so-called Temple of Mercury at Baiae, but the effect in the Pantheon is unrivaled as a sensory architectural experience (see Plate IX). 180–184, and for recent defense of the Pantheon as a temple see Fabio Barry, “The Pediment of the Pantheon. In other words, the composition of the building is governed by a coherent set of dimensions, which facilitated its design and execution, as well as contributing to its essential formal aspect. 337–352; Rice, “Urbano VIII e il dilemma del portico del Pantheon,” Bollettino d’arte, 143, 2008, pp. The fuller context is recounted in the following and more extensively in the chapter on the Pantheon during the seventeenth century. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project, BERN BDPP0069), 1.10. Quite possibly this sophisticated type of treatment was a hallmark of Apollodorus or architects in his circle. 70 Alberto M. Racheli, Restauro a Roma 1870–2000, Milan, 2000, pp. 60 See the 1836 painting of the event by Francesco Diofebei in the Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen. 35–58; Mark Wilson Jones, Principles of Roman Architecture, New Haven 2000, Chap. Finally, with the inception date of the monument in question once more, the possibility of a Trajanic start gives added strength to the association with Apollodorus, for we know Trajan to have been his appreciative patron and supporter. and 351 ff. The original decoration of the coffering of the dome is likewise a matter of conjecture: Did the coffers contain stellar or floral motifs? In 1813, it was proposed to tear down the Pantheon’s bell towers, but this did not happen. (The inscribed tablet honoring Peruzzi in the Pantheon today was placed there by his proud Sienese compatriots in 1921.) We also have direct physical evidence for explaining how the actual design of the present building was carried out, how its stones were measured, and how they were cut. Frank Lloyd Wright called his Guggenheim Museum “my Pantheon.” For Louis Kahn, the “Pantheon is really a world within a world.”, Such ideas represent a beginning, not an end, of broader studies of the fabric that arose sometime in the second century AD. In response, the architect and historian Gustavo Giovannoni (1873–1943) advocated the preservation of ancient sites within the context of the evolving urban tissue. 3. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project), VIII. The link between the porch of the Pantheon and the rotunda is formed by the so-called intermediate or transitional block. It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). For further background, see Chapter Three in this volume. The city was once considered the most important Greek city and the most important trading center in the Mediterranean region. The granite came, in turn, from two quarries, the rose or pink granite from Aswan and the gray granite from the more remote quarry at Mons Claudianus, located between the Red Sea and the Nile. Overall, it is a pantheon which promotes inclusion, rather than the exclusion which strictly Lore-based models have served to fuel since the pre-war era. - whatisgraphicdesign/ Chavanu, B. (Photo Mark Wilson Jones). 117–125. FECIT” (Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, thrice consul) (Fig. After the burial of Raphael’s consort, Maria Bibiena, came that of Baldassare Peruzzi, according to Vasari, near Raphael’s tomb where “all the painters, sculptors, and architects of Rome” were interred. Interior view featuring pier with Raphael’s tomb and flanking niches. In 1884, Victor Emmanuel’s son and successor Umberto I ordered the king’s tomb located in the lateral niche on the west side of the Rotunda’s interior. 30 Alberto Terenzio, “La Restauration du Panthéon de Rome,” Museion 20, 1932, pp. The context for this demolition was highly politicized and not merely an attempt to return the prospect of the Pantheon to its ancient state. Richard A. Etlin. Ancient sources allude to him as Trajan’s preferred designer and the author of three major projects in Rome: Trajan’s Forum, an unidentified odeon, and a gymnasium that can be presumed to be Trajan’s Baths.33 The attribution of the Pantheon to him cannot be proven, but it makes sense in several ways. Contributi all’archeologia e alla storia romana (1936–1938), Rome 1947. 335–348; Tod A.Marder, “Bernini and Alexander VII: Criticism and Praise of the Pantheon in the Seventeenth Century,” Art Bulletin, 71, no. Being based on free software, it can benefit from greater security and privacy than proprietary software because the source code can be controlled by anyone in the community, whether it is a security researcher or a worried user, and anyone can make sure that the software is secure and does not collect or disclose … The granite and marble columns were imported from Egypt, a land that was part of the Roman Empire. It’s unknown who the existing Pantheon’s architect was or exactly what role Hadrian played in the project. Additionally, the Pantheon’s architect, Jacques-Germain Soufflot, had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles. Such correspondences continue to inspire theories to explain both the genesis of the design and its intentions, theories that presume the agency of a thoroughly trained and competent ancient architect. Canova had been to Paris in 1802, less than a decade after the church had become the Panthéon and turned into a national mausoleum.58 Thus, the Roman Pantheon inspired a French Panthéon, which in turn affected thoughts about the use of the original building. 1.4. Contracts for these marble figures in 1725 and 1727 tell us that St. Rasius by Moderati was located to the left of the high altar and St. Anastasius by Cametti to the right, where they are seen today (Fig. 37 Richard Krautheimer, Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308, Princeton, 1980, p. 90. He judged the windows of the attic to be “most graceful,” the portico was a cosa rarissima (“a most rare thing”), and from the pavement to the cornicione a disegno angelico, e non umano (an “angelic, and not human design”), as we have already mentioned. Since the height of the intermediate block is the same dimension as the sides of this square, these parts of the project together compose a cube. Certainly Palladio showed no reticence in supplying the exterior with a network of channeled masonry and pilaster orders for which there was no evidence in the monument.46, 1.16. Cross-functional teams typically consist of 5-11 people who are mostly autonomous, managing their own schedules and work. Along with other recommendations for the commission, Specchi had just published his book of engravings ofDisegni di vari altari e cappelle nelle chiese di Roma in 1713. Under the direction of Edmondo Sanjust di Teulada the 1909 Piano Regolatore sought to minimize the necessity of crossing the historic center, much of which was to remain intact. On the altar mensa, Specchi planned a sculpture of the Madonna and Child, which would have obscured a view of the medieval miracle-working Madonna image, the Renaissance maiolica Assumption relief, and older frescoes on the walls of the apse. )45 By contrast, Andrea Palladio returned to Raphael’s paradigm in showing the elevation just as it stood (Fig. Thorsten Opper, British Museum Research Publications 175, London 2013, pp. Today, the Pantheon continues to function as a church, as well as a major tourist destination. View of Piazza della Rotonda after removal of vendors, repair of the portico, and rebuilding of the Chapter house; engraving by G. B. Falda, ca. The confraternity of St. Joseph of the Holy Land was established in 1542 by a canon of Santa Maria ad martyres named Desiderio di Adiutorio (1481–1546) and approved the following year.56 Membership in the confraternity soon became exclusive to artists of the day and came to be called “I Virtuosi al Pantheon.” Desiderio had been to the Holy Land twice and wanted to exhibit his collection of relics at the Pantheon, ultimately hoping to be buried there too, following Raphael’s precedent. Geburtstag 1966, ed. Interior view of Pantheon; sixteenth-century drawing by Raphael. Interior seen along main axis. Door and vault in portico; drawing by Raphael. (Photo archive, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), 1.23. 260–261 and Plates XLII, XLIV, and XLV. , completed around ad 125 and dedicated to all the gods a visual function for the important. Until his death in 1900, his own tomb was arranged in the modern era, cornice... 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